U.S. Department of Energy

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

Fatiguing contractions increase protein S-glutathionylation occupancy in mouse skeletal muscle

TitleFatiguing contractions increase protein S-glutathionylation occupancy in mouse skeletal muscle
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsKramer P.A, Duan J., Gaffrey M.J, Shukla A.K, Wang L., Bammler T.K, Qian W.J, Marcinek D.J
JournalRedox Biol
Abstract

Protein S-glutathionylation is an important reversible post-translational modification implicated in redox signaling. Oxidative modifications to protein thiols can alter the activity of metabolic enzymes, transcription factors, kinases, phosphatases, and the function of contractile proteins. However, the extent to which muscle contraction induces oxidative modifications in redox sensitive thiols is not known. The purpose of this study was to determine the targets of S-glutathionylation redox signaling following fatiguing contractions. Anesthetized adult male CB6F1 (BALB/cBy × C57BL/6) mice were subjected to acute fatiguing contractions for 15 min using in vivo stimulations. The right (stimulated) and left (unstimulated) gastrocnemius muscleswere collected 60 min after the last stimulation and processed for redox proteomics assay of S-glutathionylation. Using selective reduction with a glutaredoxin enzyme cocktail and resin-assisted enrichment technique, we quantified the levels of site-specific protein S-glutathionylation at rest and following fatiguing contractions. Redox proteomics revealed over 2200 sites of S-glutathionylation modifications, of which 1290 were significantly increased after fatiguing contractions. Muscle contraction leads to the greatest increase in S-glutathionylation in the mitochondria (1.03%) and the smallest increase in the nucleus (0.47%). Regulatory cysteines were significantly S-glutathionylated on mitochondrial complex I and II, GAPDH, MDH1, ACO2, and mitochondrial complex V among others. Similarly, S-glutathionylation of RYR1, SERCA1, titin, and troponin I2 are known to regulate muscle contractility and were significantly S-glutathionylated after just 15 min of fatiguing contractions. The largest fold changes (> 1.6) in the S-glutathionylated proteome after fatigue occurred on signaling proteins such as 14-3-3 protein gamma and MAP2K4, as well as proteins like SERCA1, and NDUV2 of mitochondrial complex I, at previously unknown glutathionylation sites. These findings highlight the important role of redox control over muscle physiology, metabolism, and the exercise adaptive response. This study lays the groundwork for future investigation into the altered exercise adaptation associated with chronic conditions, such as sarcopenia.

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